The targeted ingredients in Complete Stud Canine have been show across several species to improve semen. I have provided links to studies showing these research findings. Research is driven by monetary potential. The monetary potential in canine research is not great. Therefore we have provided research links for some of the species studied. The provided research is considered anecdotal when applied to canines. and has not been proven by controlled clinical trials. However, there is much scientific documentation outlining the effectiveness of these nutrients.
Most research for humans, for example, is performed with animals and then applied to humans. Although not all nutrients react the same in all species, many of the beneficial properties do cross over.
The following link is an article on improving canine semen by Dr. Milan Hess
Effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on semen profile and enzymatic anti-oxidant capacity of seminal plasma in infertile men with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratospermia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised study.